Tuesday, June 9, 2009

Pendakap gigi ( braces ) menurut pandangan Islam..



Nabi s.a.w bersabda :

لَعَنَ اللَّهُ الْوَاشِمَاتِ وَالْمُسْتَوْشِمَاتِ وَالنَّامِصَاتِ وَالْمُتَنَمِّصَاتِ وَالْمُتَفَلِّجَاتِ لِلْحُسْنِ الْمُغَيِّرَاتِ خَلْقَ اللَّهِ

“Allah melaknat wanita yang membuat tattoo dan wanita yang telah memakainya, wanita yang mencabut bulu diwajahnya dan wanita yang telah melakukannya, dan wanita yang meluaskan jarak diantara gigi mereka atau orang lain bagi tujuan kecantikan, menukar apa yang Allah telah ciptakan” – (Shahih Muslim #3966).


Imam Al-Nawawi rh didalam memberi komentar terhadap hadith diatas menjelaskan :-

( المتفلجات للحسن ) فمعناه يفعلن ذلك طلبا للحسن , وفيه إشارة إلى أن الحرام هو المفعول لطلب الحسن , أما لو احتاجت إليه لعلاج أو عيب في السن ونحوه فلا بأس والله أعلم .

“Meluaskan jarak gigi – maknanya sesuatu yang dilakukan keatas gigi bagi menjadi seseorang itu kelihatan cantik, dan ini menunjukkan bahawa ia adalah HARAM, iaitu apabila dilakukan bagi tujuan kecantikan, akan tetapi bagi merawat masalah yang berlaku kepada gigi, maka tidak ada salah melakukan, Dan ALLAH yang lebih tahu sebaiknya.”

Braces atau pendakap gigi ini adalah bertujuan membetulan kedudukan gigi atau merawat gigi, dan ia bukan dari larangan yang dinyatakan didalam hadith diatas yang dikategorikan sebagai mengubah ciptaan Allah.

Menurut Dr Rafa’at Fawzi Abdul Muttalib, Prof Universiti Dar al-Ulum, Braces yang membetulkan kerosakan gigi adalah dibenarkan.

Syeikh Faizal al-Moulawi, Naib Pengerusi Majlis Fatwa Eropah berkata :

تقويم الأسنان لأسباب صحية جائز شرعاً، بل قد يكون مطلوباً أيضاً

“Braces atau pendakap gigi bagi tujuan KESIHATAN adalah dibenarkan menurut syara’, bahkan ia juga diperlukan”

Menurut sekumpulan Mufti Islam Online : “As long as the bracing is done to fix a problem, then it is allowed and there is nothing wrong with it.”, iaitu selama mana pendakap itu membaiki sesuatu, maka ia dibenarkan.

———
Rujukan Fatwa :-

1. حكم تقويم الأسنان المعوجة
url : http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?pagename=IslamOnline-Arabic-Ask_Scholar/FatwaA/FatwaA&cid=1187775926711

2. عمليات التجميل للضرورة الطبية
url : http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?pagename=IslamOnline-Arabic-Ask_Scholar/FatwaA/FatwaA&cid=1122528615176

Fatwa didalam Bahasa Inggeris :-

http://www.islamonline.net/livefatwa/english/Browse.asp?hGuestID=3QU7bd

http://www.islamonline.net/livefatwa/english/Browse.asp?hGuestID=S5xA5N

Sumber : Disunting dari http://soaljawab.wordpress.com



More info on dental braces

Dental braces
(also known as orthodontic braces) are a device used in orthodontics to align teeth and their position with regard to a person's bite. They are often used to correct malocclusions such as underbites, overbites, cross bites and open bites, or crooked teeth and various other flaws of teeth and jaws, whether cosmetic or structural. Orthodontic braces are often used in conjunction with other orthodontic appliances to widen the palate or jaws or otherwise shape the teeth and jaws. While they are mainly used on children and teenagers, adults can also use them.

History

In 500-300 BC, Ancient Greek scholars Hippocrates and Aristotle both ruminated about ways to straighten teeth and fix various dental conditions.

Historians believe that two different men deserve the title of being called "the Father of Orthodontics." One man was Norman W. Kingsley, a dentist, writer, artist, and sculptor, who wrote his "Treatise on Oral Deformities" in 1880. Kingsley's writings influenced dental science greatly. Also deserving credit is dentist J. N. Farrar, who wrote two volumes entitled "A treatise on the Irregularities of the teeth and their corrections". Farrar was very good at designing brace appliances, and he was the first to suggest the use of mild force at timed intervals to move teeth.

The American dentist Edward Angle is also widely regarded as a father of modern orthodontics. Practising in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, his eponymous classification of dental arch relationships is used worldwide. His textbook, "Treatment of Malocclusion of the Teeth" was first published in 1887. It went into seven much revised editions and laid the foundation of the modern specialty. After tenure as professor of orthodontics in two medical schools, he went on to found the School of Orthodontia in 1910. He designed several fixed orthodontic appliance systems including the ribbon arch and then the edgewise appliance. These have evolved into the sophisticated pre-adjusted and self-ligating systems used by the great majority of orthodontists today.

How braces work

Teeth move through the use of force. The force applied by the archwire pushes the tooth in a particular direction and a stress is created within the periodontal ligament. The modification of the periodontal blood supply determines a biological response which leads to bone remodeling, where bone is created on one side by osteoblast cells and resorbed on the other side by osteoclasts.

Two different kinds of bone resorption are possible. Direct resorption, starting from the lining cells of the alveolar bone, and indirect or retrograde resorption, where osteoclasts start their activity in the neighbour bone marrow. Indirect resorption takes place when the periodontal ligament has become(necrosis or hyalinization), for an excessive amount and duration of compressive stress. In this case the quantity of bone resorbed is larger than the quantity of newly formed bone (negative balance). Bone resorption only occurs in the compressed periodontal ligament. Another important phenomenon associated with tooth movement is bone deposition. Bone deposition occurs in the distracted periodontal ligament. Without bone deposition, the tooth will loosen and voids will occur distal to the direction of tooth movement.

A tooth will usually move about a millimeter per month during orthodontic movement, but there is high individual variability. Orthodontic mechanics can vary in efficiency, which partly explains the wide range of response to orthodontic treatment.


Complications and risks

Plaque forms easily when food is retained in and around braces. It is important to maintain proper oral hygiene by brushing and flossing thoroughly when wearing braces to prevent tooth decay, decalcification, or unpleasant color changes to the teeth.

There is a small chance of allergic reaction to the pudding filled elastics or to the metal used in braces. In even rarer cases, latex allergy may result in anaphylaxis. Latex-free elastics and alternative metals can be used instead. It is important for those who believe that they are allergic to their braces to notify the orthodontist immediately.

Mouth sores may be triggered by irritation from components of the braces. Many products can increase comfort, including oral rinses, dental wax or dental silicone, and products to help heal sores.

Braces can also be damaged if proper care is not taken. It is important to wear a mouthguard to prevent breakage and/or mouth injury when playing sports. Certain sticky or hard foods such as taffy, raw carrots, hard pretzels, and toffee should be avoided because they can damage braces. Frequent damage to braces can prolong treatment. Some orthodontists recommend sugar-free Chewing gum in the belief that it may expedite treatment and relieve soreness; other orthodontist object to gum chewing because it is sticky and may therefore damage the braces.

In the course of treatment orthodontic brackets may pop off due to the forces involved, or due to cement weakening over time. The orthodontist should be contacted immediately for advice if this occurs. In most cases the bracket is replaced.

When teeth move, the end of the arch wire may become displaced, causing it to poke the back of the patient's cheek. Dental wax can be applied to cushion the protruding wire. The orthodontist must be called immediately to have it clipped, or a painful mouth ulcer may form. If the wire is causing severe pain, it may be necessary to carefully bend the edge of the wire in with a spoon or other piece of equipment (e.g. tweezers) until the wire can be clipped by an orthodontist.

Patients with periodontal disease usually must obtain periodontal treatment before getting braces. A deep cleaning is performed, and further treatment may be required before beginning orthodontic treatment. Bone loss due to periodontal disease may lead to tooth loss during treatment.

In some cases, teeth may be loose for a prolonged period of time. One may be able to wriggle one's teeth for a year or two after treatment or longer.

The dental displacement obtained with the orthodontic appliance determines in most cases some degree of root resorption. Only in a few cases is this side effect large enough to be considered real clinical damage to the tooth. In rare cases, the teeth may fall out or have to be extracted due to root resorption.

Pain and discomfort are common after adjustment and may cause difficulty eating for a time, often a couple days. During this period, eating soft foods can help avoid additional pressure on teeth.

Removal of the cemented brackets can also be painful. The cement must be chipped and scraped off which can cause severe pain in patients with sensitive teeth. Often molar bands have been installed for an extended period of time and they may be embedded in the gums at the time of removal.

The metallic look may not be desirable to some people, although transparent varieties are available. According to a survey published in the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, dental braces with no visible metal were considered the most attractive. Braces that combine clear ceramic brackets with thin metal or clear wires were a less desirable option, and braces with metal brackets and metal wires were rated as the least aesthetic combination.

Sumber : Disunting dari http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dental_braces

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